George L. Miller and Amy C. Earls
War and Pots: The Impact of Economics and Politics on Ceramic Consumption Patterns

Ceramics in America 2008

Full Article
  • Figure 1
    Figure 1

    Invoice, Davenport Brothers, New York, 1861. (Authors’ collection; all photos, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 2
    Figure 2

    Plate, England, 1855–1860. Ironstone. D. 8 3/4". Brown printed importer’s mark: “MANUFACTURED / FOR / DAVENPORT BROs../ 203 Greenwich St../ N Y.” Unfortunately, the plate does not bear a potter’s mark or pattern name.

  • Figure 3
    Figure 3

    Detail of the mark on the underside of the plate illustrated in fig. 2.

  • Figure 4
    Figure 4

    Invoice, Stein, Wanner & Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1856. The invoice bears a vignette with a white granite pitcher and lists wares sold to Fahnestock Brothers in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

  • Figure 5
    Figure 5

    Pitcher, William Adams and Son, Tunstall, Staffordshire, 1850–1860. White granite. H. at handle 10". Mark: printed on underside, American eagle and “SUPERIOR WHITE GRANITE.” This pitcher is very close in form to the one in the center of the vignette on the invoice illustrated in fig. 4. 

  • Figure 6
    Figure 6

    Invoice, Stirk, Field & Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 29, 1861. The vignette shows the facade of the company’s building with a sign for “QUEENSWARE” and, on the street below, a typical Staffordshire crate being unpacked. The invoice is for a list of wares sold to Fahnestock Brothers. 

  • Figure 7
    Figure 7

    Muffin plate, Joseph Clementson, Shelton and Hanley, Staffordshire, ca. 1839–1855. Whiteware. D. 5". Mark: on  underside, printed in brown, “S. FAHNESTOCK / IMPORTER.” Samuel Fahnestock founded the firm that became Fahnestock Brothers in 1855. The plate decoration is the Lucerne pattern.

  • Figure 8
    Figure 8

    Detail of the importer’s mark on the underside of the muffin plate illustrated in fig. 7. 

  • Figure 9
    Figure 9

    Cost of painted teas, edged plates, and dipped bowls as a percentage above the cost of CC ware, 1796–1859: painted teas, edged plates, dipped bowls. 

  • Figure 10
    Figure 10

    Value of imported English ceramics, 1828–1886.  Source: U.S. Treasury Reports

  • Figure 11
    Figure 11

    Market share of imported ceramics, 1828–1888. Source: U.S. Treasury Reports

  • Figure 12
    Figure 12

    Transcription of a notice dated July 1, 1864, in which D. B. Stedman & Co., Boston, Massachusetts, announced a 50 percent price increase. The original is in the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana-Pottery, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

  • Figure 13
    Figure 13

    Percentage of undecorated teas (CC and White Granite wares) listed in the invoice sample.

  • Figure 14
    Figure 14

    Percentage of undecorated plates (CC and White Granite wares) listed in the invoice sample.

  • Figure 15
    Figure 15

    Percentage of undecorated bowls (CC and White Granite wares) listed in the invoice sample.

  • Figure 16
    Figure 16

    Percentage of decorated teas (Painted and Printed) listed in the invoice sample.

  • Figure 17
    Figure 17

    Percentage of decorated plates (Edged and Printed) listed in the invoice sample.

  • Figure 18
    Figure 18

    Percentage of decorated bowls (Painted, Dipped, and Printed) listed in the invoice sample.

  • Figure 19
    Figure 19

    Bowls, Don Carpentier, East Nassau, New York, ca. 1995. Earthenware. D. of bowl at right 6 1/2". The three bowls shown are reproductions of dipped ware: variegated, fan, and mocha. 

  • Figure 20
    Figure 20

    Bowls, Staffordshire, ca. 1830–1850 (left), ca. 1850–1880 (right). Whiteware. D. of bowl at left 4 1/2", H. 2 3/4". The bowl at left was turned, the one at right was jiggered. 

  • Figure 21
    Figure 21

    Saucer, England, ca. 1780–1800. China glaze. D. 4 7/8". 

  • Figure 22
    Figure 22

    Saucer, Ralph and James Clews, Staffordshire, ca. 1818–1834. Pearlware. D. 6". 

  • Figure 23
    Figure 23

    Saucer, Staffordshire, ca. 1810–1820. Pearlware. D. 5 1/8". The painted decoration on the border is a classical husk pattern.

  • Figure 24
    Figure 24

    Saucer, Staffordshire, ca. 1830– 1835. Whiteware. D. 5 7/8". This example has a thick border of strawberries painted in chrome colors, a more complex design than found in many patterns of the period.

  • Figure 25
    Figure 25

    Saucer, Staffordshire, ca. 1845– 1860. D. 5 3/4". The very small sprigs decorating this saucer are painted in chrome colors. On one side the rim has a thicker glaze with a light blue tint—clearly meant to make a whiter ware rather than to imitate Chinese porcelain. 

  • Figure 26
    Figure 26

    Saucer, England, ca. 1845–1880. Whiteware. D. 5 3/4". The decoration on this saucer was achieved using four different cut sponges, with the exception of the black stem of the plant, which was painted by hand.

  • Figure 27
    Figure 27

    Percentage above the cost of CC ware for printed teas, plates, and bowls.

  • Figure 28
    Figure 28

    The changing cost relationship between CC, shell-edged, and printed plates.

  • Figure 29
    Figure 29

    Average discounts on 122 Staffordshire invoices for ceramics exported to America.

  • Figure 30
    Figure 30

    Plate, John Turner, Lane End, Staffordshire, ca. 1790–1806. China glaze. D. 7 3/4". Turner went bankrupt in 1806.

  • Figure 31
    Figure 31

    Plate, probably J. and R. Riley, Burslem, 1814–1828. Pearlware. D. 9 7/8".

  • Figure 32
    Figure 32

    Plate, Staffordshire, ca. 1818–1830. Pearlware. D. 10 1/8". The plate has a rim blemish, which would have made it a “second” in quality. 

  • Figure 33
    Figure 33

    Plate, S. & S., ca. 1845–1860. Ironstone. D. 10 1/2". Marks: impressed on underside, “KERR’S / OLD CHINA HALL / PHILA.”; printed in blue on underside, “ONTARIO / S & S” within decorative border. “Ontario” refers to the pattern.

  • Figure 34
    Figure 34

    Detail of the mark on the underside of the plate illustrated in fig. 33.

  • Figure 35
    Figure 35

    Plate, Livesley Powell & Co., Hanley, Staffordshire, 1851–1866. Whiteware. D. 9". The Rose and Bell sheet pattern is printed in purple with red and blue painted highlights. 

  • Figure 36
    Figure 36

    Plate, Staffordshire, ca. 1860–1870. Ironstone. D. 9 1/2". Marks: None. The plate’s border is decorated with floral sprays, and the center shows a group of floral sprays with a flag, plus a liberty cap vignette that was commonly used during the Civil War.